Computer Sciences

Openalea: a visual programming and component-based software platform for plant modeling

C.Pradal , C.Godin , F.Boudon , C.Fournier , S.Dufour-Kowalski


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As illustrated by the approaches presented during the 5th FSPM workshop , the development of functional-structural plant models requires an increasing amount of computer modeling. All these models are developed by different teams in various contexts and with different goals. Efficient and flexible computational frameworks are required to augment the interaction between these models, their reusability, and the possibility to compare them on identical datasets. In this paper, we present an open-source platform, OpenAlea, that provides a user-friendly environment for modelers, and advanced deployment methods. OpenAlea allows researchers to build models using a visual programming interface and provides a set of tools and models dedicated to plant modeling. Models and algorithms are embedded in OpenAlea components with well defined input and output interfaces that can be easily interconnected to form more complex models and define more macroscopic components. The system architecture is based on the use of a general purpose, high-level, object-oriented script language, Python, widely used in other scientific areas. We briefly present the rationale that underlies the architectural design of this system and we illustrate the use of the platform to assemble several heterogeneous model components and to rapidly prototype a complex modeling scenario.

Using deconvolution to improve the metrological performance of the grid method

J.Mathias , M.Grediac , F.Sur , C.Badulescu


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The use of various deconvolution techniques to enhance strain maps obtained with the grid method is addressed in this study. Since phase derivative maps obtained with the grid method can be approximated by their actual counterparts convolved by the envelope of the kernel used to extract phases and phase derivatives, non-blind restoration techniques can be used to perform deconvolution. Six deconvolution techniques are presented and employed to restore a synthetic phase derivative map, namely direct deconvolution, regularized deconvolution, Richardson-Lucy algorithm and Wiener filtering, the last two with two variants concerning their practical implementations. Obtained results show that the noise that corrupts the grid images must be thoroughly taken into account to limit its effect on the deconvolved strain maps. The difficulty here is that the noise on the grid image yields a spatially correlated noise on the strain maps. In particular, numerical experiments on synthetic data show that direct and regularized deconvolutions are unstable when noisy data are processed. The same remark holds when Wiener filtering is employed without taking into account noise autocorrelation. On the other hand, the Richardson-Lucy algorithm and Wiener filtering with noise autocorrelation provide deconvolved maps where the impact of noise remains controlled within a certain limit. It is also observed that the last technique outperforms the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. Two short examples of actual strain fields restoration are finally shown. They deal with asphalt and shape memory alloy specimens. The benefits and limitations of deconvolution are presented and discussed in these two cases. The main conclusion is that strain maps are correctly deconvolved when the signal-to-noise ratio is high and that actual noise in the actual strain maps must be more specifically characterized than in the current study to address higher noise levels with Wiener filtering.

State of the art of network protocol reverse engineering tools

J.Duchene , C.Le , E.Alata , V.Nicomette , M.Kaaniche


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Communication protocols enable structured information exchanges between different entities. A description, at different levels of detail, is necessary for many applications, such as interoperability or security audits. When such a description is not available, one can resort to protocol reverse engineering to infer the format of exchanged messages or a model of the protocol. During the past 12 years, several tools have been developed in order to automate, entirely or partially, the protocol inference process. Each of those tools has been developed with a specific application goal for the inferred model, leading to specific needs, and thus different strengths and limitations. After identifying key challenges, the paper presents a survey of protocol reverse engineering tools developed in the last decade. We consider tools focusing on the inference of the format of individual messages or of the grammar of sequences of messages. Finally, we propose a classification of these tools according to different criteria, that is aimed at providing relevant insights about the techniques used by each of these tools and comparatively to other tools, for the classification of messages, the inference of their format or of the grammar of the protocol. This classification also permits to identify technical areas that are not sufficiently explored so far and that require further development in the future.
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