Economic Sciences

Abundantly and Rarely Expressed Lhc Protein Genes Exhibit Distinct Regulation Patterns in Plants

S.Andreas , J.Stefan , L.Dario , K.Frank , N.Christos


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We have analyzed gene regulation of the Lhc supergene family in poplar (Populus spp.) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) using digital expression profiling. Multivariate analysis of the tissue-specific, environmental, and developmental Lhc expression patterns in Arabidopsis and poplar was employed to characterize four rarely expressed Lhc genes, Lhca5, Lhca6, Lhcb7, and Lhcb4.3. Those genes have high expression levels under different conditions and in different tissues than the abundantly expressed Lhca1 to 4 and Lhcb1 to 6 genes that code for the 10 major types of higher plant light-harvesting proteins. However, in some of the datasets analyzed, the Lhcb4 and Lhcb6 genes as well as an Arabidopsis gene not present in poplar (Lhcb2.3) exhibited minor differences to the main cooperative Lhc gene expression pattern. The pattern of the rarely expressed Lhc genes was always found to be more similar to that of PsbS and the various light-harvesting-like genes, which might indicate distinct physiological functions for the rarely and abundantly expressed Lhc proteins. The previously undetected Lhcb7 gene encodes a novel plant Lhcb-type protein that possibly contains an additional, fourth, transmembrane N-terminal helix with a highly conserved motif. As the Lhcb4.3 gene seems to be present only in Eurosid species and as its regulation pattern varies significantly from that of Lhcb4.1 and Lhcb4.2, we conclude it to encode a distinct Lhc protein type, Lhcb8.

Potential budgetary impact of large scale screening of small fiber neuropathy in the follow-up of patients with type 2 diabetes in france

P.Levy , L.Bordier , J.Calvet , G.Le , B.Bauduceau


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Aims: The burden of diabetes-related complications is important and increasing in France. Early screening of microvascular complications could avoid the occurrence of more severe consequences. An economic model using a 5-year time horizon was developed to estimate the potential impact in France of large screening of diabetic autonomic neuropathy using Sudoscan, a quick, non-invasive and quantitative method developed for screening of small fiber neuropathy. Methods: A disease progression model was first developed to describe the long-term evolution of patients with type 2 diabetes regarding microvascular complications over successive time periods and patients were classified in 4 groups according to the severity. Complication-related costs were then calculated for a cohort of patients treated according to the current pattern of care and compared with the costs incurred by the same cohort assuming the introduction and widespread use of a large screening of small fiber neuropathy using the Sudoscan method. Comparison of treatment costs between the two situations was used to evaluate the potential budget impact of such a prevention policy in France. Results: According to this general screening of early complications more than 25,000 patients could avoid more severe complications. The gross benefit of such a new prevention strategy would be around 280 million at 5th year. After 5 years of follow-up, the cumulated gross benefit would be 837 million and in the worst case scenario gross benefit would remain at more than 50 million for the first year and more than 255 million at the 5th year. Conclusion: Large screening of small fiber neuropathy could avoid more severe peripheral neuropathy and consequently decrease the burden related to such complications for a limited investment.
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