Social Sciences

Determinants of refusal of a/h1n1 pandemic vaccination in a high risk population: a qualitative approach

O.Lortholary , O.Launay , E.D'Alessandro , D.Hubert , L.Bassinet , Y.Jaffre , I.Sermet-Gaudelus


alt
15 views
alt alt alt alt alt
Background: Our study analyses the main determinants of refusal or acceptance of the 2009 A/H1N1 vaccine in patients with cystic fibrosis, a high-risk population for severe flu infection, usually very compliant for seasonal flu vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews in 3 cystic fibrosis referral centres in Paris, France. The study included 42 patients with cystic fibrosis: 24 who refused the vaccine and 18 who were vaccinated. The two groups differed quite substantially in their perceptions of vaccine-and disease-related risks. Those who refused the vaccine were motivated mainly by the fears it aroused and did not explicitly consider the 2009 A/H1N1 flu a potentially severe disease. People who were vaccinated explained their choice, first and foremost, as intended to prevent the flus potential consequences on respiratory cystic fibrosis disease. Moreover, they considered vaccination to be an indirect collective prevention tool. Patients who refused the vaccine mentioned multiple, contradictory information sources and did not appear to consider the recommendation of their local health care provider as predominant. On the contrary, those who were vaccinated stated that they had based their decision solely on the clear and unequivocal advice of their health care provider. Conclusions/Significance: These results of our survey led us to formulate three main recommendations for improving adhesion to new pandemic vaccines. it appears necessary to reinforce patient education about the disease and its specific risks, but also general population information about community immunity. it is essential to disseminate a clear and effective message about the safety of novel vaccines. this message should be conveyed by local health care providers, who should be involved in implementing immunization.

L'oeuvre negociee : sociologie de l'experience du net art et de ses dispositifs de mediation

J.Fourmentraux


alt
30 views
alt alt alt alt alt
This article will try to describe the rites and rhythms inherent to the "implementation" of Net art. The objective is to seize the variety of operations mobilized for the conguration and circulation of these works between the artists and the "user-experts" who also deploy, themselves, sophisticated and tested "tactics" for reception. The analysis relates the foundings of this negotiated reception by relating it to the more conventional settings of theatrical and cinematographic experiences. The confrontation of these now stabilized forms of "relationships with the work" permit the specication of the job of organization, the actions schemes and the unique reception procedures for Net art. Thus this work contributes to a sociology of frameworks and regimes of the activity of reception confronted with the technologies of information and communication. Resume : Cet article propose de qualier les rites et rythmes inherents a la "mise en uvre" du Net art. L'objectif est de saisir la variete des operations mobilisees pour la conguration et la circulation de ces uvres entre artiste et "usagers-experts" qui deploient, eux-memes, des "tactiques" de reception outillees et experimentees. L'analyse met en perspective les ressorts de cette reception negociee en la rapportant aux "cadres" plus conventionnels qui organisent l'experience theatrale et cinematographique. La confrontation avec ces formes aujourd'hui stabilisees de "rapports a l'uvre" permet ici de specier le travail d'organisation, les schemas d'action et les procedures de reception speciques au Net art. Ce texte contribue ainsi a une sociologie des cadres et regimes de l'activite de reception aux prises avec les technologies de l'information et de la communication.

Press infographics at school: a socio-educational comparative study of the effects of contexts

J.Kerneis , J.Santini


alt
21 views
alt alt alt alt alt
This article brings out the semiotic, enunciative and epistemic specificities of infographics and their ability to produce differences between students. First, we analyze two infographics dealing with household consumption. Then we analyse a priori two sequences in which both infographics are presented, in a comparative and contrastive way. These teaching sequences were produced eight years apart; the first one was produced during the middle school whereas the second one was produced during vocational school. The article attempts to demonstrate how the way we conceive a sequence can either aggravate inequalities between pupils or be a source of emancipation for all. This is achieved through an approach articulating joint action theory in didactics, the didactic of contexts and sociology. The study seems to be relevant at a time where media and information education is included the reformulation law of July 2013 and in the 2014 project on the knowledge skills and culture base. Resume : Dans cet article, nous mettons en evidence le caractere specifique des infographies du point de vue semiotique, enonciatif et epistemique ainsi que leur capacite a produire des differences entre les eleves, des la conception des seances d'apprentissage qui les prennent comme objet d'etude. Nous analysons dans un premier temps deux infographies portant sur la consommation des menages. Ensuite, deux sequences ou ces deux memes supports sont utilises, font l'objet d'une analyse socio-didactique presentee de maniere comparative et contrastive. Elles ont ete produites a huit annees d'intervalle, l'une se deroulant au college et l'autre en lycee professionnel. Nous tentons de montrer en quoi les manieres de concevoir la sequence peuvent etre porteuses d'une aggravation des inegalites entre les eleves ou au contraire sources d'emancipation pour tous. Ce travail est realise grace a une approche articulant les theories de l'action conjointe en didactique, la didactique des contextes et la sociologie. Cela nous semble pertinent a un moment ou l'education aux medias et a l'information est inscrite dans la loi de refondation de l'ecole de juillet 2013 et dans le projet du socle de connaissances, de competences et de culture de 2014. Les infographies sont des supports que l'on trouve de plus en plus frequemment dans la presse ecrite et sur Internet ainsi que dans les manuels scolaires. Ce sont des ressources qui laissent beaucoup de travail a la charge de l'enseignant qui veut les utiliser dans sa classe. En effet, les infographies sont, en premier lieu, des supports qui ne sont pas appretes pour l'enseignement mais qui visent a rendre accessibles a un large public des faits complexes, selon l'adage selon lequel un schema vaut mieux qu'un long discours.

On Smith's Ambiguities on Value and Wealth

M.Ferdinando


alt
116 views
alt alt alt alt alt
Ricardo’s criticisms of Adam Smith on value and wealth have been sometimes rejected and sometimes accepted in the period following the publication of his Principles. By contrast, they have been mostly ignored in the recent revivals of Ricardian economics both in the branch concerned with value and distribution and in the branch devoted to wealth and equilibrium growth. This paper intends to fill the gap between these two branches by revisiting Smith’s link between value and wealth in the light of Ricardo’s criticisms. This is done in two steps. The first step is provided in Part I and deals with Ricardo’s criticisms i) of Say’s and Lauderdale’s criticisms of Smith on this issue, and ii) of Smith’s and Malthus’ arguments on the related issues of rent and of the “annual produce of the land and labour of a country”. The second step is provided in Part II. The aim of this Part is to dissolve Smith’s terminological inaccuracies or contradictions by disentangling them from the analytical foundations of his system of thought. This is done by re-examining Smith’s arguments on value and wealth in the light of two distinctions. One runs between the two points of view –of an individual and of society– which underlie the whole of his system of thought. The other is put forward by Smith himself in a neglected passage of the Wealth and runs between the notions of “work done” and “work to be done”. Both distinctions are then utilized to revisit the principle of exchangeable value as command of labour in the economy as a whole and in the sense of work to be done. The paper is closed by arguing that this principle is needed for supporting the idea of a permanent increase in the natural price of labour (in Smith’s rather than in Ricardo’s sense) in economies exposed to a continuous process of accumulation.
alt